Please note: all chapters are written in the same format as the following excerpt, except for the final chapter Whole Word ReadingProgram which is divided into steps for teaching sight words to verbal and to non-verbal students.
Chapter 3 (pp29-38) Same and Different
These goals are appropriate for students with one or more of the following characteristics:
is able to match object to object, picture to picture, and object to picture
has difficulty understanding and using the words “same” and “different”; e.g., horse and horse (same); horse and cow (different)
is unable to clearly describe features specific to a person, object, or animal
is developing visual discrimination skills
Same and Different Goals The student will understand and use “same” and “different” applied to: Goal 1: identical and non-identical objects (e.g., cup/cup, cup/pen). Goal 2: objects of the same name that are identical or non-identical by color (e.g., red car/blue car). Goal 3: the presence or absence of objects in a physical group (e.g., cow/pig/sheep compared with cow/pig/sheep/horse). Goal 4: objects that have the same name but vary by features other than color (e.g., round/square blocks; striped/spotted pillows). Goal 5: objects that do not have the same name but have some shared features (e.g., orange and apple; sun and moon). Goal 6: pictures that vary by one feature. Goal 7: picture scenes that vary by several features.
Goal 1: The student will understand and use “same” and “different” applied to identical and non-identical objects (e.g., cup/cup, cup/pen) (with 80–90 percent accuracy). Prerequisite: Ability to match object to object, object to picture, and picture to picture (not covered in this manual).
10–20 paired identical toys/objects or pictures of toys/objects; e.g., 2 identical dolls, 2 identical pencils (create non-identical pairs by selecting an object from each of 2 identical pairs).
Introduction Introduce the goal by telling the student that he is going to learn the words “same” and “different.” Use some of the paired identical objects or object pictures. Label paired objects that match as the “same” and paired objects that do not match as “different” (e.g., identical toy cars = “same”; toy car and ball = “different”). Describe the reason that they are the same or different (e.g., these are the same—they are both cars; these are different—this is a car and this is a ball). Provide several examples. Give visual support to the student who can read by presenting the written words “same” and “different” on separate cue cards when appropriate and as needed.
Activity Receptive Place 2–6 paired identical toys/objects or toy/object pictures mixed up on the table. Hold up one object and tell the student to “find same” (e.g., a pencil and an identical pencil). Hold up any object from the collection and tell the student to find “different” (the student is to show any object other than the matched one (e.g., pencil and car). Ask for “same” and “different” objects randomly. Note: If the student is having difficulty, work on having him find “same” to 80–90 percent accuracy and then work on “different” to the same level before working on “same” and “different” at random.
Activity Expressive Present pairs of objects (identical and non-identical) and have the student identify them as the same or different (e.g., sock and identical sock = same; hat and mitt = different). Ask, “How are they different?” Encourage the student to respond using as much of the sentence structure as he is able (e.g., “This one is a car and this one is a ball”). A reduced structure is acceptable at this stage (e.g., “This car this ball”).
Play Lotto, Memory, Fishing, Magic Bag, and Go Fish (see section Multipurpose Games in Language Therapypp. 7-9). Point out and label the cards that are the “same” and those that are “different.”
Introduce additional vocabulary that expresses the concepts of “same” and “different” (e.g., match, go together).
Following Goal 1, the student will work on Goals 2-6 as described in “Targeting Language Delays” pp31-38 then finish Chapter 3 with:
Goal 7: The student will recognize and describe features that are the “same” and “different” in picture scenes that vary by several features (with 80–90 percent accuracy).
Commercial same/different picture scenes showing single and increasing to multiple differences (use clear, uncluttered pictures at first).
Introduction Tell the student that now he is going to look at pictures that someone else has made and find what is the same and what is different.
Activity Receptive and Expressive Use commercial same/different materials, but be careful to start with scenes that are clearly illustrated and contain only one difference. Cartoon characters can be very confusing, so avoid them at first. Have the student gradually work up to searching for multiple similarities and differences. If necessary, use a piece of cardstock to cover irrelevant parts of the picture and highlight the area in which the student is to look.
Have 2 typically developing students draw a picture of the same object or scene (e.g., car, house, playground, beach). Compare and discuss with your student how the pictures are the same and different.
Take photos at different times of places and scenes familiar to the student. Compare and discuss them (e.g., trees in summer and fall; playground at recess and after school; tidy desk/untidy desk).
Play computer games or use apps that require the student to find two or more differences in designs and pictures.